One of the most important events ever to influence the breeding of horses in northern Peru was - as is so often the case with important events - the result of an accident rather than a carefully laid plan.The event involved don Andres Zapata, a cattle baron and important horse breeder who, with his sons, had farms near Pacanga and Jequetepeque, south of Chiclayo and north of Guadalupe. One dark night nearly forty years ago a messenger bringing news about an important transaction stopped at the Hda. palomino, owned by Federico de la Torre Ugarte, and changed horses in the style of the Pony Express, borrowing one of the Torre Ugarte horses. The messenger rode the rest of the way to the Zapata farm and arrived in the middle of the night. he turned his borrowed horse loose in one of the pastures and went to bed.
The next morning, one of do Andres Zapata's sons was making his regular early morning, prebreakfast rounds of the farm, carrying - as he always did - his hunting rifle. Suddenly he spotted a strange horse which has obviously "invaded" one of the pastures. Only a man who had to carve a pasture out of one of the driest deserts in the world could understand the importance of protecting that pasture from use by animals that had no right to be there. Young Zapata, with the vigor and conviction that are so strong during youth, shot the "invader" dead.

At breakfast the same morning, young Zapata discovered that his hasty action had been ill considered. he had killed the horse that Federico de la Tore Ugarte had so generously loaned to his father's messenger. The Zapata family picked one of its best young fillies and sent her to Federico de la Torre Ugarte with their apologies. This mare was called La Zapata and became National Champion of Champions in Peru in 1946. She also was to become one of the most renowned broodmares of this century, for she gave birth to the most important modern foundation stallion in Northern Peru., Limeñito. La Zapata also produced a full sister to Limeñito, La Zapata II, who later gave birth to Altanero and Zapatilla. Zapatilla in her turn produced a son named Mandinga (Peru 299-S) and another son named Mi Lujo (Peru 61-S) among her offspring.

By means of her extraordinary offspring and the succeeding generations produced by those offspring, La Zapata carved the name for her breeder into the annals of Peruvian horse breeding. This is not to say, however, that La Zapata was the only important horse produced by the Zapata family. Campo Alegre, later utilized widely by the Hda. Pucala, and Fabo, the sire of Coral (Peru 86-S), were both Zapata horses. The Zapata family also provided much of the foundation stock for the breeding farm of Jorge Baca in Reque, near Chiclayo.

As an interesting footnote, it is said that the Zapata horses descend from a stallion named Paramonga, who would have almost certainly come from Hda. Paramonga on the Pativilca River, about 200 kilometers north of Lima.

Federico de la Torre Ugarte's Hda, Palomino, later managed by Fernando Ceruti, was to have the most profound influence on the breeding of Paso horses in Northern Peru. Most of the successful, modern Northern breeders can trace most of their stock back to animals that wore the FTU brand as can some of the Lima and Southern breeders. Torre Ugarte himself, traces his foundation bloodlines back to several sources, including Zapata horses and a horse named Lujo, who came from the famed Hda. Galpon near Pativilca. Crossed with La Zapata, Lujo sired Zapatilla, the mother of Mandinga (Peru 299-S) ; Recuerdo (Peru 250-M), who was 1962 National Champion in Lima; and of Perla, who was the dam of Palmira (Peru 340-M). Lujo had a long career at stud with Torre Ugarte and subsequently with Hda. Pucala where he sired, among many others, Lujosa (Peru 165-M), the mare that was the cornerstone of Fernando Peschiera's breeding program in Chincha.

Crossing La Zapata with Limeño Viejo, who reportedly came from the Pisco Valley in Southern Peru and was a son of Pin Pin, Torre Ugarte produced the great Limeñito. Through Limeñito, Torre Ugarte provided an important part of the foundation bloodlines for two giant Northern sugar cane plantations, the Hda. Pucalsa and the Hda. Cayalti. The Hda. Pucala had two of the most important Limeñito sons, Carnaval (Peru 58-S) and Mantaro (57-S), who would become its foundation sires. Pucala also had several Limeñito daughters, Limeñito, himself, took up residence at the Hda. Cayalti, owned by the Aspillaga Anderson brothers, where he sired the sons that gave Cayalti its fame as a breeder of finely gaited horses: Tondero (Peru 100-S) - the sire of Chasqui (Peru 276-S) - and Honorable (Peru 101-S), as well as others. Limeñito also gave Cayalti its finest mares, including Muñeca II (Peru 305-M) and Columbina II (Peru 304-M). The Hda. Cayalti had a half brother to Limeñito named Elegante (not to be confused with the Pedro Cabrera horses of the same name), who was also a son of Limeño Viejo and was the sire of such important Cayalti horses as Soberana (Peru 255-M) and Casique (Peru 73-S).

Limeñito also sired Principe, who belonged to the Isola family and was the Peruvian National Champion of Champions in 1945,1948, 1950, 1951, 1952 and 1953. The Isolas owned the Hda. Mayorazgo, which was managed in those days by Carlos Gonzales B. Principe sired the 1953 Peruvian National Champion Stallion, Sultan, and a daughter named La Reina, who was an important national prize winner in Peru in the mid-50's.

Another of Limeñito's daughters was a very well known, prize winning mare named Palmira (Peru 340-M), who produced *Suspiro (S70830), a US National Champion Junior Stallion.

The Hda. Cayalti has several other important bloodlines. A horse named Cayalti (Rex x Colombina I) sired the top show horse, Capricho (Peru 72-S), who in turn was the sired of Fito Matellini's present herd sire, Trapiche (Peru 289-S).

Torre Ugarte's influence was also felt through another of his stallions, Jardinero, the sire of Perote Huandeño (Peru 225-S), who was used extensively by Casa Grande and to the lesser extent by a number of other breeders, including Fernando Grana and Anibal Vasquez. Golpe de Arpa, another Torre Ugarte stallion, was the sire of Cayalti's great broodmare, Columbina I and Pucala's great broodmares, Serpentina and Esterlina, and Peru's 1951 National Champion stallion, Zañero.

The next in the long line of Torre Ugarte breeding stallions is Altanero, who was the son of a stallion named Lurifico (who came from the Hda. Lurifico near Chepen) and La Zapata II. Altanero had quite a bit of influence on Cayalti's breeding program. Tongolele (Peru 310-M). the mother of Trapiche (Peru 289-S), was one of the many offspring her left there. Altanero also had a profound effect on the breeding program of Anibal Vasquez in Paijan and of Jorge Juan Pinillos of Trujillo, directly and through his son, Palomino Aginaga.

Via two stallions named Palomino (after the hacienda), Torre Ugarte influenced Northern Peruvian bloodlines even further. Palomino Alazan (chestnut) was a son of a stallion named Desagravio (not the same Desagravio later owned by Juan Pardo) from the Hda. Desagravio in Pativilca near the Hda. Galpon and of a mare named Esterlina, who was one of the most celebrated broodmares in Peru's history, being dam of Lujosa (Peru 165-M); Lira(Peru 218-M), the dam of US National Reserve Champion mare; *Fascinacion (S67547), a US National Champion of Champions stallion; *Duquesa (M731257) and Pilsen, an important show horse in Peru in the early 1950's. Pilsen was sired by Torre Ugarte's Desagravio. Palomino Alazan had a considerable impact on the breeding program of Anibal Vasquez and is the sire of the famous Vasquez show mare, Diplomatic, who was also National Champion in 1975 and who was bred to Prestigio (Peru 295-S) to produce Sol de Paijan,1976 National Champion stallion in Peru.

In addition to the chestnut, there was a blue roan horse named Palomino. This horse became popularly known as Palomino Moro (due to his color) and as Palomino Aginaga because his dam was owned by a Dr. Aginaga. Palomino Aginaga was the son of Altanero and Incognito, and he was bred four times to a Vasquez mare named Orquidea to produce the four Vasquez mares named Andaluza (Peru 349,408, apparently not registered.) Palomino Alazan and Palomino Aginaga are simply referred to as Palomino and cannot usually be distinguished from one another on Peruvian Registration Certificates.

Owing to the excellent bloodstock it acquired from Torre Ugarte and to the fact that it had several hundred horses at any given time, the Hda. Pucala became an important force in the show ring from the mid-1950's to the mid 1960's. Pucala's most famous Limeñito son, Carnaval (Peru 58-S), 1959 National Champion of Champions in Peru, was one of the most prolific of modern Northern Stallions. Among his many sons were many successful show and breeding horses: Mi Lijo (Peru 61-S). *Pucala (S71902). *No Leche Crema (S72986), N.V.G. Amauta (Peru 441-S), and *Pabellon (S67525), 1969 US National Champion. Carnaval's famous daughters include Lira (Peru 218-M); Carmelita (Peru 234-M), and dam of *Broche de Oro (S721107); *Sultana (M68634) - not to be confused with Alfredo Elias mare of the same name, this *Sultana was the dam of Rizado (G68638), US National Champion of Champions gelding, and Paisano (S721142) a US National Champion of Champion stallion; Veguera (Peru 268-M), 1965 National Champion in Peru; Minerva (Peru 296-M), three times National Champion of Champions in Peru, also known as Pacanguilla; *Gloria (M70829), a US National Champion of Champions; and Cleopatra I, the dam of Cleopatra II de Pucala (M71897), and 1972 US National Champion of Champions mare.

Famous Pucala broodmares including Serpentina (a daughter of Golpe de Arpa), the dam of Chalpon (Peru 60-S) and Carnaval (Peru 58-S). Chalpon was the Sire of *Fascinacion (S67547), whop won many National champion prizes in Peru as well as early US National Champion of Champions stallion and *Intrepido (S67524), 1971 US National Champion of Champions. Another Peruvian National Champion of Champion stallion from the Hda. Pucala was Mantaro(Peru 57-S), who won this maximum show ring honor in 1960. Mantaro was the son of the legendary Limeñito and Mascota, a mare who came from the Hda. Galpon near Pativilca. Mantaro sired several outstanding horses including Marathon (Peru 54-S), 1964 National Champion in Peru.

A more recent Pucala stallion was Mandinga (Peru 299-S), whose blood was influenced by a breeder named Juan Luis Ruesta of Piura. As previously mentioned, Mandinga's dam was Zapatilla. His sire was a horse names Piurano. There have been many Piuranos (Literally "the one from Piura"); but there were two outstanding horses of that name, both of which came from Monte Verde, the breeding farm of Juan Luis Ruesta in Piura. One of these Piuranos was black, and the other was grey. The black was the sire of Mandinga and some people say he is the same horse that was known under the name of Rio Piura. If that is true, Mandinga is also half brother to a mare names *Cleopatra de Ruesta (M71894), who was the dam of the 1975 US National Champion Mare *Perfidia (M71895). Juan Luis Ruesta also had an important impact on the breeding program of Anibal Vasquez through a stallion known as Prestigio (Peru 295-S), who was the sire of Sol de Paijan. Prestigio bred a number of mares for other major breeders and presently belongs to Cayalti, which is a government cooperative since it was expropriated from the Aspillaga Anderson family. Gringa (Peru 389-M), the dam of Prestigio, was the daughter of Palomino Aginaga and Piurana.

The Hda. Pucala was one of the few Northern breeding farms to have a profound impact upon a Southern breeder, for Fernando Peschiera built his entire breeding program around a Pucala mare named Lujosa (Peru 165-M). Lujosa arrived at Peschiera's Hda. San Fernandito in Chincha in foal to Carnaval and as a result gave her first daughter ,Silvana (Peru 169-M), who was to become the dam of the great three times National Champion of Champions stallion named El Cid (Peru 75-S) and a Peruvian National Champion mare named Gama (Peru 632-M) . Lujosa's other offspring include Grana (Peru 178-M), Peru's National Champion mare; Lujito (Peru 32-S), Peru's Champion of Champions in 1961; Dona Sol (Peru 172-M), who was the dam of Montaraz (Peru 198-S), *Ollantay (S71910), and Lisonja (Peru 491-M); Ilustre (Peru 43-S), who was the sire of Manuel Mazzi's herd sire, Eminente (Peru 308-S); and Redoble (Peru 142-S). 

Go to Part 2, North Bloodlines